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CIS Submission to the Expert Committee: Protection of Broadcasting Organisations under the Proposed Treaty as Compared to Other International Conventions

Posted by Amulya Purushothama and Nehaa Chaudhari at Dec 21, 2014 04:25 AM |
This is a submission made by Nehaa Chaudhari on behalf of the Centre for Internet and Society to the Expert Committee on the Broadcast Treaty constituted by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. This submission compares provisions of the Proposed Treaty for the Protection of Broadcasting Organizations that is being deliberated at WIPO's SCCR at the moment, and provisions for the protection of rights of broadcasters that are already present in existing international instruments.

Special thanks to CIS intern, Amulya Purushothama for her research and writing on this subject.


I. Preliminary

1. This submission presents preliminary comments by the Centre for Internet and Society, India ("CIS") on the Proposed Treaty for the Protection of Broadcasting Organizations ("Broadcast Treaty") being deliberated by the Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights ("SCCR") of the World Intellectual Property Organization ("WIPO").

2. These comments are submitted pursuant to the request of the Hon'ble Secretary, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting [1], Government of India ("MI&B") at the First Meeting of the Expert Committee to Discuss the Treaty for Broadcasting Organizations at SCCR, WIPO ("Expert Committee"), held on 02 September, 2014 at New Delhi, India, which CIS attended as a member.

3. CIS commends the MI&B for its efforts at seeking inputs from various stakeholders prior to the framing of India's response to the Broadcast Treaty. CIS is thankful for the opportunity to be a part of the Expert Committee. It is a pleasure and privilege to provide this submission in furtherance of the feedback process initiated at the First Meeting of the Expert Committee on 02 September, 2014

II. Overview

4. This submission is divided into two substantive parts- the first part of this submission ("Part 1") presents an analysis on the need for the Broadcast Treaty and its Scope of Application; and the second part of this submission ("Part 2") discusses the shift from a 'signals based approach' to a 'rights based approach'. Part 1 presents an analysis on the need for such a treaty vis-à-vis the rights of broadcasters and authors already protected under the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, 1886 ("Berne Convention"), the International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations, 1961 ("The Rome Convention"), the Brussels Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme - Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite, 1974("Brussels Convention"), the WIPO Copyright Treaty, 1996("WCT"), the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty,1996 ("WPPT"), and the Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances, 2012 ("The Beijing Treaty"). In doing so, first, existing literature presented at the WIPO on the need for this treaty has been examined; second, provisions of the Broadcast Treaty have been compared with those in the earlier conventions; and third, the rights sought to be granted under the Broadcast Treaty have been examined to ascertain the need for possible additional lawyers of protection, when compared against those offered by earlier conventions.

5. Part 2 examines the Broadcast Treaty to identify a shift from a 'signals based approach' to a 'rights based approach' In so doing in this part first, discussions at the WIPO General Assembly of 2007 on the appropriateness of a 'signals based approach' have been examined to support the claim that a "signals based approach" is indeed appropriate; second, the possible costs of a rights based approach have been identified and third, various provisions of the Broadcast Treaty have been examined to demonstrate an inconsistency with a 'signals based approach'.

III. Detailed Comments

Part 1.The Need for a Broadcast Treaty

(a) Literature Review

6. The Draft Non Paper on the Broadcast Treaty circulated by the WIPO[2] and the background brief prepared by certain WIPO Member States[3] says that this treaty is necessary in order to update international rules to keep pace with technological developments.

7. A study sanctioned by the WIPO in 2010 enumerates the different ways in which signal piracy can take place and the harmful effects it has on revenues of the broadcasting organisations.[4] This study says that continued signal theft may result in dis-incentivizing broadcasting organisations from continuing their work which would in turn affect public interest adversely as important programmes would no longer be broadcast.[5]

8. The study also analyses how the Broadcast Treaty will positively affect different stakeholders like copyright holders and broadcasting organisations due to an additional layer of protection that it grants to them against signal theft and copyright infringement. [6]

9. However, the question of why the current protections provided to copyright holders and to broadcasting organisations under the Rome Convention, the Berne Convention and the Brussels Convention are inadequate when it comes to curbing unauthorized use of broadcast signals if they are implemented properly is still left unanswered. It has not been proved that the Broadcast Treaty fills any gaps left behind by the Berne Convention, the Rome Convention or the Brussels Convention.

10. The Broadcast Treaty is designed in essence, to combat problems with implementation that arose from the earlier treaties, [7] and it is submitted that this justification does not hold water as it is not so much an argument for a new treaty as it is for better implementation of the international conventions that already exist. Therefore, CIS is of the opinion that the reasons provided so far for the need for the Broadcast Treaty do not support the claim made by the broadcasters that the Broadcast Treaty is necessary.

(b) Comparative Analysis

11. In this part we will go through the protections granted in the Broadcast Treaty and compare them with equivalent provisions in other international treaties and a detailed table is provided at the end of this document for reference.

12. The nine focus areas we will concentrate on are, the right of performance, the right of fixation, the right of communication to the public, the right of retransmission, reproduction, distribution, the protection of rights management information, the term of protection, and limitations and exceptions to protections.

13. The argument here is simply that the protections offered under the Broadcast Treaty are either unnecessary as the underlying right is already protected in earlier international conventions or that they are excessive and offer a higher level of protection than previously offered by international conventions, and therefore must be justified.

14. Right of Performance: Under the proposed Broadcast Treaty, broadcasting organisations have an exclusive right to authorize performances of their signals for commercial purposes in places available to the public.[8] This right of public performance and of communication to the public of a performance with respect to dramatic or musical works rests with the copyright holder under the Berne Convention. [9] The Rome Convention states that "protection provided for the performers shall possibly include the prevention of broadcasting and communication to the public without their consent of their performance except where the performance used in the broadcasting or the public communication is itself already a broadcast performance or is made from a fixation".[10]Under the WPPT, performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the broadcasting and communication to the public of their unfixed performances except where the performance is already a broadcast performance.[11] And under the Beijing Treaty, performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the broadcasting and communication to the public of (1) their unfixed performances except where the performance is already a broadcast performance and (2) their performances fixed in audiovisual fixations.[12]

15. CIS therefore submits that the right of performance has been adequately granted to authors/ performers/ copyright h1olders under the earlier international conventions and that the proposed Broadcast Treaty only extends an unnecessary additional layer of protection over the same content.

16. Right of Fixation: The proposed Broadcast Treaty grants broadcasting organisations the exclusive right to authorize fixations of their broadcasts.[13] As fixation is defined as an "embodiment of sounds or images or representations thereof from which they can be perceived reproduced or communicated through a device",[14] this would realistically cover content underlying the signal as well. The Rome Convention states that the protection provided for performers by this convention possibly includes the preventing of fixation without their consent of their unfixed performances".[15]Further broadcasting organisations already enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the fixation of their broadcasts under the Rome Convention. [16] The Brussels Convention limits this obligation to prevent distribution of signals in case of derived signals that are taken from signals which have already been distributed by a distributor for whom the emitted signals were intended. Derived signals are signals whose technical characteristics are modified whether or not there have been one or more intervening fixations. This allows for some limitation on the right of fixation granted by the Rome Convention.[17] The WPPT provides performers with the right of authorizing the fixation of their unfixed performances.[18]This is mirrored in the Beijing Treaty. [19]

17. Hence CIS submits that the right of fixation has already been adequately covered by international conventions, the provisions of the proposed Broadcast Treaty simply extend this right to possibly cover the content underlying the signal, this would add an extra layer of protection as performers and authors already are vested with a right to fixation under earlier international conventions and treaties, further, the granting of this right to broadcasters could potentially grant them control of content underlying their signals as well, and for these reasons the proposed provisions must be adequately justified.

18. Right of Communication to Public: The proposed Broadcast Treaty defines "communication to the public" as "making the transmissions… audible or visible."[20] And guarantees the exclusive right to authorize the communication to the public of their broadcasts to broadcasting organisations through any means including over computer networks[21] The right of communication to the public has also been guaranteed to authors of literary and artistic workers who can authorize the broadcasting of their works and communication of their work to the public by any means including rebroadcasting under the Berne Convention. [22] The Rome Convention grants a similar right to broadcasting organisations when the broadcast is made in places accessible to the public for a fee, [23]however, the Brussels Convention limits this right and excludes situations where the signals emitted by or on behalf of the originating organization are intended for direct reception from the satellite by the general public.[24] Further, under the WCT, the right to authorize communication to the public is vested with authors of literary and artistic works,[25] and under the WPPT performers enjoy a similar right to authorize broadcasting and communication to the public of their unfixed performances except where the performance is already a broadcast performance. [26] In the Beijing Treaty, performers enjoy the exclusive rights of authorizing the broadcasting and communication to the public of both their unfixed performances except where the performance is already a broadcast performance.[27]And their performances are fixed in audiovisual fixations. [28]

19. Therefore, CIS submits that the right to communicate to the public and even the right to broadcast are adequately guaranteed by the existing international conventions already, the proposed Broadcast Treaty, by vesting a similar right in broadcasting organisations, merely adds an extra layer of protection for the same and doesn't actually fill any existing gaps in the current international intellectual property regime. Further the extension of the right to cover communications made over computer networks is an additional right provided for under the treaty and must be adequately justified.

20. Right of Retransmission: Under the proposed Broadcast Treaty, broadcasting organisations enjoy the exclusive right of retransmission of their broadcast by any means including rebroadcasting, by wire or over computer networks, includes simultaneous retransmission or otherwise [29] the right to authorize broadcasting of their works to the public including any communication to the public by wire or by rebroadcasting the broadcast of the work is vested with the authors of literary and artistic works in the Berne Convention, [30] The Rome Convention already guarantees that broadcasting organisations have the right to authorize and prohibit the rebroadcasting of their broadcasts[31] and the Brussels Convention [32]enjoins contracting states to "take adequate measures to prevent the distribution of any Programme-carrying signal by any distributor for whom the signal emitted to or passing through the satellite is not intended on or from its territory".

21. Therefore, CIS submits that the right of retransmission was already well vested with broadcasting organisations and authors and the expansion of this right to include simultaneous retransmission, transmission over computer networks, cablecasting etc. under the proposed Broadcast Treaty must be adequately justified.

22. Right of Reproduction: The proposed Broadcast Treaty vests the right to authorize direct and indirect reproduction in any manner or form of fixations of their broadcasts with the broadcasting organization.[33] The right to authorize reproduction of copyrighted work[34] and the right to adaptation and alteration [35] is granted to authors of literary and artistic works under the Berne Convention, the Rome Convention allows for the protections provided for performers to include the preventing of reproduction of a fixation of their performance if the original fixation is made without the consent or if the reproduction is made for purposes different from those for which consent was begot, the reproduction is made for purposes that aren't in accordance with Article 15, of a fixation of their performance,[36] it further provides for broadcasting organisations to enjoy the exclusive right to authorize or prohibit the reproduction of fixations made without their consent of their broadcasts[37] and for producers of phonograms to enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the direct or indirect reproduction of their phonograms,[38] performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing direct or indirect reproduction of their performances fixed in phonograms in any manner or form under the WPPT, [39] and producers of phonograms have the exclusive right of authorizing the direct or indirect reproduction of their phonograms in any manner or form under the WPPT.[40]And lastly under the Beijing Treaty performers enjoy the exclusive right authorizing the direct or indirect reproduction of their performances fixed in audiovisual fixations in any manner or form.[41]

23. CIS therefore submits that the right of reproduction has vested with authors and performers and producers of phonograms under several international treaties, the extension of this right to broadcasting organisations adds another layer of protection thereof, but fulfills no need or gap in the existing international intellectual property framework, further, the granting of this right to broadcasters could potentially grant them control over content underlying their signals as well. CIS therefore believes that the inclusion of this right must be adequately justified.

24. Right of Distribution: Under the proposed Broadcast Treaty, broadcasting organisations enjoy the exclusive right to make available to the public, the originals and copies of the fixations in such a way that they can access them from a time and place chosen by them individually, [42] in addition to making such a fixation available through sale or any other means of transfer of ownership.[43]The WCT vests the right of distribution of artistic or literary works with their authors,[44] performers enjoy an equivalent right under the WPPT, [45] as do producers of phonograms,[46] and lastly, performers enjoy the exclusive right of distribution of their performances in audiovisual fixations under the Beijing Treaty. [47]

25. Therefore, CIS submits that the right of distribution has been adequately protected by earlier conventions, the Broadcast Treaty, by extending this right to broadcasting organisations adds another layer of protection for the same right and doesn't necessarily fill any gaps in the international intellectual property framework.

26. Protection of Rights Management Information("RMI"): The proposed Broadcasting Treaty defines RMI as any information that identifies the broadcasting organization, the broadcast, the owner of any right in the broadcast, or information about the terms and conditions of use of the broadcast and any numbers or codes that represent such information when any of these items of information is attached to or associated with the broadcast or the pre broadcast signal or its use in accordance with Article 6.[48] These RMI could be attached to 1) the broadcast or the signal prior to broadcast, 2) the retransmission, 3) transmission following fixation of the broadcast, 4) making available of a fixed broadcast or 5) a copy of a fixed broadcast.[49] One alternative provides for an obligation on contracting parties to provide for "adequate and effective legal protection against unauthorized(a) decryption of an encrypted broadcast or circumvention of any technological protection measure ("TPM") having the same effect as encryption, (b) manufacture , importation, sale or any other act that makes available a device or system capable of decrypting an encrypted broadcast and (c) removal or alteration of any electronic RMI used for the application of the protection of broadcasting organization."[50] Another alternative provides for the same protection only against "(a) unauthorized decryption of an encrypted broadcast, (b) removal or alternation of any electronic RMI for the application of the protection of the broadcasting organisations."[51] Further one alternative also provides that states must ensure "adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies against the circumvention of effective technological measures used by broadcasting organisations in connection with the exercise of their rights under this treaty that restrict unauthorized acts in respect of their broadcasts" [52]. While another provides for this in addition to a provision that states "without limiting the forgoing, contracting parties shall provide legal protection against (i) unauthorized decryption of an encrypted broadcast signal and (ii) removal or alternation of any electronic RMI relevant for the application of the protection of the broadcasting organisations." [53]

27. The definition of RMI has been adopted from earlier conventions such as WCT[54] and WPPT[55] except for the inclusion of RMI attached to pre-broadcast signal. Under the WCT [56] and the WPPT[57], contracting parties have an obligation to provide for legal protection and effective legal remedies against circumvention of effective technological measures used by authors or performers or producers of phonograms in connection with exercise of their rights under these treaties to restrict the unauthorized and unlawful use of their work. Under the WCT[58] and the WPPT,[59] contracting parties have an obligation to provide for "adequate and effective legal remedies against any person knowingly performing (i) removal or alteration of any electronic RMI without authority or (ii) distribution or import for distribution or broadcast or communication to the public without authority works or copies of works knowing that electronic RMI has been removed or altered without authority knowing or with respect to civil remedies having reasonable grounds to know that it will induce, enable, facilitate or conceal an infringement of any right" under WCT, WPPT or the Berne Convention. Similar provisions are made for the protection of RMI attached to audiovisual fixations under the Beijing Treaty [60] under Article 16(2) which defines RMI as information that identifies the performer, the performance of the performer or the owner of any right in the performance or information about the terms and conditions of use of the performance, and any numbers or codes that represent such information, when any of these items of information is attached to a performance fixed in an audiovisual fixation.

28. CIS therefore submits that the provisions proposed in the Broadcast Treaty provide for a protection of RMI that is significantly higher than protection of RMI in earlier convention, not only does it now extend to pre broadcast signals, retransmission, transmissions following fixation of the broadcast making available of a fixed broadcasts or a copy of a fixed broadcasts, it also exists to decryption and encryption of these signals. Therefore, It is important that such extended protections need to be adequately justified.

29. Term of Protection: The proposed Broadcast Treaty provides for a term of protection that lasts for a minimum of 20-50 years computed from the end of the year in which the broadcast signal was broadcast.[61] The Berne Convention provides for a term of protection "life of the author and fifty years after his death" in case of literary and artistic works and 50 years after the work has been made available to the public or in case it hasn't been made available to public, fifty years after the making of the work in case of cinematographic works. [62] Under the Rome Convention the term of protection is calculated as a minimum of 20 years from when the broadcast first took place for broadcasts.[63] Under the WPPT, the term of protection granted to performers is at least 50 years from the end of the year in which the performance was fixed in a phonogram. The term of protection granted for producers is at least 50 years calculated from the end of the year in which the phonogram was published, if unpublished, 50 years from end of the year in which fixation of phonogram was made.[64] And under the Beijing Treaty, term of protection to be granted to performers is at least until the end of a period of 50 years from the end of the year in which the performance was fixed. [65]

30. CIS therefore submits that the term of protection envisioned under the Broadcast Treaty extends protection to copyrighted works as it is not calculated from when the first broadcast of the signal took place, but from when the last broadcast took place, this could potentially lead to ever-greening of copyright protections as broadcasting organisations could simply renew their rights by simply broadcasting their signals again and again. Clearly terms of protection already envisioned under other international conventions protected any content underlying the signal adequately; this provision simply provides an additional layer of protection and doesn't really fill any gaps in the current international intellectual property framework.

31. Limitations and Exceptions: The proposed Broadcast Treaty provided for exceptions and limitations for" (i) private use, (ii) use of short excerpts in connection with reporting of current events , (iii) use solely for purposes of education and scientific research and (iv) ephemeral fixation by a broadcasting organization by means of its own facilities and for its own broadcasts."[66] And for the same or other limitations as are applied in connection with copyrighted works as long as they are confined to special cases that do not conflict with normal exploitation and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the broadcasting organization. Under an alternative, the limitations and exceptions for protection of broadcasting signals can be similar to those for protection of literary and artistic works, provided they are confined to certain special cases that do not conflict with normal exploitation of work that doesn't unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the broadcasting organization.[67] Under a further alternative, limitations and exceptions may extend to all this but further, exceptions of (a) private use, (b) excerpts in connection with reporting of current events (c) ephemeral fixation by a broadcasting organization by means of its own facilities and for its own broadcasts , (d) solely for the purpose of teaching or scientific research, (e) use to promote access by persons with impaired sight or hearing, learning disabilities or other special needs, (f) use by libraries , archivists or educational institutions to make publicly available copies of works that are protected by any rights of the broadcasting organization for preservation, education or research And (g) use of any kind in any manner or form of any part of a broadcast where the program or any part of it which is subject of the transmission is not protected by copyright or any related right, is presumed to constitute special cases that don't conflict with normal exploitation of the work and don't unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the rights holder.[68]

32. The Berne Convention first laid down the "three step test" which stated that "countries of the Union can choose to permit the reproduction of such works in special cases, provided that such reproduction doesn't conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and doesn't unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author"[69]. Under the Rome Convention these exceptions could include (a) private use, (b) use of short excerpts in connection with reporting of current events, (c) ephemeral fixation by a broadcasting organization by means of its own facilities and for its own broadcasts and d) use solely for the purposes of teaching or scientific research, limitations on protection of copyright in literary and artistic works or compulsory licenses to an extent that is compatible with this convention keeping in mind the three step test [70] Under the Brussels Convention limitations and exceptions to protection of signals include (i) short excerpts of the programme consists of reports of current events , but only to the extent justified by the informatory purpose of such excerpts, (ii) quotations, or short excerpts of the programme carried by the emitted signal, provided that such quotations are compatible with fair practice and are justified by the informatory purpose of such quotations or (iii) the distribution is solely for the purpose of teaching including teaching in the framework of adult education or scientific research in a developing country.[71] Further, contracting states are not limited from applying domestic law to prevent abuses of monopoly in this regard.[72] The WCT follows the three step test formula for literary and artistic work[73] and the WPPT allows for similar limitations for protection of performers and producers of phonograms keeping in mind the three step test.[74] Similar provisions exist under the Beijing Treaty as well.[75]

33. CIS therefore submits that the limitations and exceptions to protections under the Broadcast Treaty could possibly be narrower than those in other international conventions. CIS is of the opinion that such a narrowing of limitations and exceptions must be justified adequately.

34.

Table Comparing Protections Provided under Broadcast Treaty with Protections Provided in Earlier International Conventions

Protection

Proposed Broadcast Treaty

Berne Convention,

1884

Rome Convention,

1961

Brussels Convention,

1974

WIPO Copyright Treaty,

1996

WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty, 1996

Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances, 2012

Performance

Article 9 (1) (ii) (Alternative A), broadcasting organisations have an exclusive right to authorize performances of their signals for commercial purposes in places available to the public.

Article11, the right of public performance and of communication to the public of a performance with respect to dramatic or musical works rests with the copyright holder

Article 7(1) (a), protection provided for the performers shall include the possibility of preventing the broadcasting and communication to the public without their consent of their performance except where the performance used in the broadcasting or the public communication is itself already a broadcast performance or is made from a fixation.

Article 6 (i), Performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the broadcasting and communication to the public of their unfixed performances except where the performance is already a broadcast performance

Article 6(i) performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the broadcasting and communication to the public of their unfixed performances except where the performance is already a broadcast performance.

Article 11, performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the broadcasting and communication to the public of their performances fixed in audiovisual fixations.

Fixation

Article 9 (1) (i) (Alternative B), broadcasting organisations have the exclusive right to authorize fixation of their broadcasts.

Article 5(e) (Alternative A) and 5(f) (Alternative B),

Fixation is defined as an embodiment of sounds or images or representations thereof from which they can be perceived, reproduced or communicated through a device. This would realistically cover content in addition to the signal.

Article 7(1) (b), the protection provided for performers by this convention includes the possibility of preventing the fixation without their consent of their unfixed performances.

Article 13(b).

Broadcasting organisations enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the fixation of their broadcasts.

Article 2(3), the obligation to prevent distribution of signals by any distributor for whom the signal emitted to or pasting through the satellite is not intended will not apply for the distribution of derived signals that are taken from signals which have already been distributed by a distributor for whom the emitted signals were intended. Derived signals are signals whose technical characteristics are modified whether or not there have been one or more intervening fixations. (Article 1(v)).

Article 6(ii), performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the fixation of their unfixed performances.

Article 6(ii), performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the fixation of their unfixed performances.

Communication to the Public

Article 9(1) (iv) (Alternative B), broadcasting organisations have the exclusive right to authorize the communication to the public of their broadcasts.

Article 5 (e) (Alternative B), communication to the public can be defined as "making the transmissions… audible or visible."

Article 11 bis, authors of literary and artistic works enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the broadcasting of their works and of communication thereof to the public by any means of wireless diffusion of signs, sounds or images. And rebroadcasting.

Article 13(d),

Broadcasting organisations enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the communication to the public of their broadcasts if it is made in places accessible to the public for a fee.

Article 3, the convention doesn't apply when signals emitted by or on behalf of the originating organization are intended for direct reception from the satellite by the general public.

Article 8, authors of literary and artistic works enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing any communication to the public of their works by wire or wireless means, including the making available to the public of their works in such a way that members of the public may access these works from a place and at a time individually chosen by them

Article 6 (i), performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the broadcasting and communication to the public of their unfixed performances except where the performance is already a broadcast performance

Article 6(i) performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the broadcasting and communication to the public of their unfixed performances except where the performance is already a broadcast performance.

Article 11, performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the broadcasting and communication to the public of their performances fixed in audiovisual fixations.

Retransmission

Article 5 (d) (Alternative A) read with Article 9(1) (i) (Alternative A) and 9(1) (iii) (Alternative B),
broadcasting organisations enjoy the exclusive right of retransmission of their broadcast by any means including rebroadcasting , by wire or over computer networks, includes simultaneous retransmission or otherwise

Article 11 bis, authors of literary and artistic works enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the broadcasting of their works… to the public, and any communication to the public by wire or by rebroadcasting of the broadcast of the work.

Article 13(a),

Broadcasting organisations enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the rebroadcasting of their broadcasts.

Article 2(1), contracting states are required to take adequate measures to prevent the distribution of any programme-carrying signal by any distributor for whom the signal emitted to or passing through the satellite is not intended on or from its territory.

Reproduction

Article 9(1) (ii) (Alternative B), broadcasting organisations have the exclusive rights to authorize direct and indirect reproduction in any manner or form of fixations of their broadcasts.

Article 9, the right of reproduction is vested with the authors of the copyrighted work.

Article 12, the right of adaptation and other alteration is vested in the copyright holder/ author.

Article 7 (1) (c), the protection provided for performers under this convention includes the possibility of preventing the reproduction of a fixation of their performance if the original fixation is made without their consent or if the reproduction is made for purposes different from those for which consent was begot, the reproduction is made for purposes that aren't in accordance with Article 15, of a fixation of their performance.

Article 13(c),

Broadcasting organisations enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the reproduction of fixations made without their consent of their broadcasts.

Articles 10, producers of phonograms enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the direct or indirect reproduction of their phonograms.

Article 7, performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing direct or indirect reproduction of their performances fixed in phonograms in any manner or form.

Articles 11, producers of phonograms have the exclusive right of authorizing the direct or indirect reproduction of their phonograms in any manner or form.

Article 7, performers enjoy the exclusive right authorizing the direct or indirect reproduction of their performances fixed in audiovisual fixations in any manner or form.

Distribution

Article 9 (1) (v) (Alternative B), broadcasting organisations enjoy the exclusive right to make available to the public, the original and copies of fixations of their broadcasts in such a way that the members of the public may access them from a place and time individually as chosen by them. Article 9 (1) (vii) (Alternative B), they have the exclusive right to make available to the public of the originals and copies of their broadcasts through sale or other transfer of ownership.

Article 6,

Authors of literary and artistic works enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the making available to the public of the original and copies of their works through sale or other transfers of ownership.

Article 8, authors of literary and artistic works enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing any communication to the public of their works by wire or wireless means, including the making available to the public of their works in such a way that members of the public may access these works from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.

Article 8, performers enjoy the exclusive right of authorizing the making available to the public of the original and copies of their performances fixed in phonograms through sale or other transfer of ownership. This doesn't affect the freedom of contracting parties to determine conditions to exhaustion of this right after the first sale or other transfer of ownership (Article 8 (ii)).

Article 10, performers have the exclusive right to authorize the making available to the public of their performances fixed in phonograms , by wire or wireless means, in such a way that members of the public may access them from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.

Article 12 and 14, this right extends to producers of phonograms.

Article 8 (1), performers enjoy the exclusive rights of authorizing the making available to the public of original and copies of their performances fixed in audiovisual fixations through sale or other transfer of ownership.

Article 8(2) contracting parties have the freedom to determine conditions under which exhaustion of this right applies after first sale or other transfer of ownership of the original or a copy of a fixed performance with the authorization of the performer.

rights management information

Article 5, Alternative A to Article 5 (h), "rights management information" ("RMI") is defined as information that identifies the broadcasting organization, the broadcast, the owner of any right in the broadcast, or information about the terms and conditions of use of the broadcast and any numbers or codes that represent such information when any of these items of information is attached to or associated with the broadcast or the pre broadcast signal or its use in accordance with Article 6.

Article 13(2), RMI is any information of the abovementioned nature that is associated with 1) the broadcast or the signal prior to broadcast, 2) the retransmission, 3) transmission following fixation of the broadcast, 4) making available of a fixed broadcast or 5) a copy of a fixed broadcast.

Article 12, Alternative A1, contracting parties shall provide adequate and effective legal protection against unauthorized(a) decryption of an encrypted broadcast or circumvention of any technological protection measure ("TPM") having the same effect as encryption, (b) manufacture , importation, sale or any other act that makes available a device or system capable of decrypting an encrypted broadcast and (c) removal or alteration of any electronic RMI used for the application of the protection of broadcasting organization. Alternative A2, contracting parties shall provide adequate and effective legal protection against (a) unauthorized decryption of an encrypted broadcast, (b) removal or alternation of any electronic RMI for the application of the protection of the broadcasting organisations.

Alternative B 1 and B2, contracting parties shall provide adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies against the circumvention of effective technological measures used by broadcasting organisations in connection with the exercise of their rights under this treaty that restrict unauthorized acts in respect of their broadcasts. Alternative B2 (2), without limiting the forgoing, contracting parties shall provide legal protection against (i) unauthorized decryption of an encrypted broadcast signal and (ii) removal or alternation of any electronic RMI relevant for the application of the protection of the broadcasting organisations.

Article 13 (1), contracting parties must provide for legal remedies against a violation of this right done knowingly and without proper authority.

Article 12(2), "rights management information" is defined in a similar way as it is in the Broadcast Treaty, excluding however, the RMI attached to pre-broadcast signal.

Article 11, contracting parties have an obligation to provide for legal protection and effective legal remedies against circumvention of effective technological measures used by the authors in connection with exercise of their rights.

Article 12 (1), contracting parties shall provide adequate and effective legal remedies against any person knowingly performing (i) removal or alteration of any electronic RMI without authority or (ii) distribute or import for distribution or broadcast or communicate to the public without authority works or copies of works knowing that electronic RMI has been removed or altered without authority knowing or with respect to civil remedies having reasonable grounds to know that it will induce, enable, facilitate or conceal an infringement of any right under WCT or the Berne Convention.

Article 19(2): "rights management information" is defined in a similar way as it is in the Broadcast Treaty.

Article 18, contracting parties are obligated to provide adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies against circumvention of effective technological measures that are used by performers or producers of phonograms in connection with their rights under this treaty.

Article 19, contracting parties shall provide for adequate and effective legal remedies against any person knowingly (i) removing or altering the electronic RMI without authority or (ii) distributing, importing for distribution, broadcasting or communicating or making available to public without authority performances, copies of fixed performances or phonograms knowing that electronic RMI has been removed or altered without authority knowing, or with respect to civil remedies, having reasonable grounds to know that it will induce, enable, facilitate or conceal an infringement of any right covered by this treaty.

Article 16(2): "rights management information" which identifies the performer, the performance of the performer or the owner of any right in the performance or information about the terms and conditions of use of the performance, and any numbers or codes that represent such information, when any of these items of information is attached to a performance fixed in an audiovisual fixation.

Article 15, contracting parties have a duty to provide for adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies against the circumvention of effective technological measures that are used by performers in connection with the exercise of their rights under this treaty and that restricts acts in respect of their performances which are not authorized by the performers concerned or permitted by the law, Article 16 (1), contracting parties shall provide adequate and effective legal remedies against any person knowingly (i) removing or altering any electronic EMI without authority (ii) distributing, importing for distribution, broadcasting , communication or making available to public, without authority, performances or copies of performances fixed in audiovisual fixations knowing that electronic rights management information has been removed or altered without authority, knowing or with respect to civil remedies, having reasonable grounds to know that it will induce, enable, facilitate or conceal an infringement of any right covered by this treaty.

Term of Protection

Article 11 (Alternative A), the term of Protection lasts for a minimum of 20-50 years computed from the end of the year in which the broadcast signal was broadcast.

Article 7 (1), term of protection is the life of the author and fifty years after his death. In case of cinematic works, 50 years after the work has been made available to the public or in case it hasn't been made available to public, fifty years after the making of the work.

Article 14(c),

The term of protection is calculated as a minimum of 20 years from when the broadcast first took place for broadcasts.

It shall last for a period of 20 years computed from the end of the year in which the performance took place for performances not incorporated in phonograms (Article 14 (b)), and Article 14(c), for twenty years from the end of the year in which the fixation was made for phonograms and performances incorporated therein,

Article 9, in respect of photographic works, the contracting parties shall not apply the provisions of Article 7(4) of the Berne Convention

Article 17, the term of protection granted to performers is at least 50 years from the end of the year in which the performance was fixed in a phonogram. The term of protection granted for producers is at least 50 years calculated from the end of the year in which the phonogram was published, if unpublished, 50 years from end of the year in which fixation of phonogram was made.

Article 14, term of protection to be granted to performers under this treaty shall last at least until the end of a period of 50 years from the end of the year in which the performance was fixed.

Limitations and Exceptions

Article 10, Alternative A, contracting states may provide for exceptions for (i) private use, (ii) use of short excerpts in connection with reporting of current events , (iii) use solely for purposes of education and scientific research and (iv) ephemeral fixation by a broadcasting organization by means of its own facilities and for its own broadcasts. And for the same or other limitations as are applied in connection with copyrighted works as long as they are confined to special cases that do not conflict with normal exploitation and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the broadcasting organization.

Alternative B and C, contracting parties may provide for the same kinds of limitations or exceptions for protection of broadcasting organisations as they provide for in protection of copyright in literary and artistic works and protection of literary works. They shall confine limitations to rights provided for in this treaty to certain special cases that do not conflict with normal exploitation of work that doesn't unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the broadcasting organization.

Alternative C(2)(a), exceptions of (a) private use, (b) excerpts in connection with reporting of current events (c) ephemeral fixation by a broadcasting organization by means of its own facilities and for its own broadcasts , (d) solely for the purpose of teaching or scientific research, (e) use to promote access by persons with impaired sight or hearing, learning disabilities or other special needs, (f) use by libraries , archivists or educational institutions to make publicly available copies of works that are protected by any rights of the broadcasting organization for preservation, education or research. And (g) use of any kind in any manner or form of any part of a broadcast where the program or any part of it which is subject of the transmission is not protected by copyright or any related right, are presumed to constitute special cases that don't conflict with normal exploitation of the work and don't unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the rights holder.

Article 9, countries of the union can choose to permit the reproduction of such works in special cases, provided that such reproduction doesn't conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and doesn't unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author.

Article 15 (1), contracting states may provide for exceptions to the protections guaranteed under this convention as regards (a) private use, (b) use of short excerpts in connection with reporting of current events, (c) ephemeral fixation by a broadcasting organization by means of its own facilities and for its own broadcasts and d) use solely for the purposes of teaching or scientific research. Article 15 (2), contracting states may provide for limitations that mirror limitations on protection of copyright in literary and artistic works or compulsory licenses to an extent that is compatible with this convention.

Article 4, the contracting states are not obliged to prevent the distribution of signals by a distributor for whom the signal is not intended if (i) it carries short excerpts of the programme carried by the emitted signal, consisting of reports of current events , but only to the extent justified by the informatory purpose of such excerpts, (ii) quotations, or short excerpts of the programme carried by the emitted signal, provided that such quotations are compatible with fair practice and are justified by the informatory purpose of such quotations or (iii) the distribution is solely for the purpose of teaching including teaching in the framework of adult education or scientific research in a developing country.

Further, under Article 7, contracting states are not limited from applying domestic law to prevent abuses of monopoly in this regard.

Article 10, contracting parties may provide for limitations or exceptions to rights granted to authors under this treaty in special cases that do not conflict with normal exploitation of work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author via national legislation.

Article 16, contracting parties can provide for the same kinds of limitations or exceptions with regard to protection of performers and producers of phonograms as they provide for in their national legislation to the protection of copyright in literary and artistic works. Article 16 (ii), contracting parties shall confine limitations and exceptions to rights to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the performance or phonogram and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the performer or of the producer of the phonogram.

Article 13(1), contracting parties may provide for the same kinds of limitations and exceptions with regard to protection of performers as they provide for in their national legislation in connection with the protection of copyright in literary and artistic works.

Article 13(2), these limitations or exceptions must be confined to certain special cases which do not conflict with normal exploitation of the performance and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the performer.

35. In addition to this, the proposed Broadcast Treaty, broadcasting/cablecasting organisations now have certain rights that they find no parallel in other international conventions such as rights to pre broadcasting signals[76] etc., the necessity for the inclusion of these rights is yet to be proven.

(c) Analysis and Conclusions

36. CIS is of the opinion that that a higher level of protection is offered to the broadcasting organisations in the Broadcasting Treaty simply because they now have rights to authorize public performances, rights to authorize direct and indirect reproduction of their fixations, right to communication to the public and right to resale, rights that fall under the scope of rights already granted to copyright holders in the Berne Convention. [77] Therefore anyone hoping to use copyrighted material that has been broadcast will have to obtain authorization from the broadcasting organisations in addition to the author/performer.[78]

37. It can be observed from the above discussion that certain rights of broadcasting organisations with regard to signal theft are already protected under the Berne Convention, the Rome Convention and the Brussels Convention. Therefore, broadcasting organisations and copyright holders already have recourse under these conventions to combat certain kinds of signal theft.

38. Hence, CIS believes that any justification provided for the proposed Broadcast Treaty must explain why these provisions are not enough either through impact assessment or by enumerating in clear terms why additional protections are necessary for protection against signal theft, neither of which has been done by any study put forward by the WIPO to date.

39. CIS is therefore of the opinion that the WIPO should undertake a further impact assessment study or a theoretical report outlining the need for the treaty and justifying the introduction of an additional layer of protections against signal theft.

Part 2: Shift from Signals Based Approach to Rights Based Approach

(a) Need for a Signals-Based Approach

40. The WIPO General Assembly decided in 2007 that the focus of the Broadcast Treaty should be the piracy of signals which harms broadcasting organisations as they invest heavily in the production of these signals and therefore have a legitimate interest in the issue of unauthorized use of these signals. [79]

41. It further decided that the protections granted by the Broadcast Treaty should not extended to the content carried by the signals as this would amount to granting those rights to the broadcasting organisations that have already been granted to the copyright holders under the Berne Convention and the Rome Convention.[80] This was done keeping in mind especially that protections granted by the Broadcast Treaty should not extend to orphan works or works that are already in the public domain so as to not curb freedom of expression. [81]

42. CIS believes that the decision to frame the treaty along a signals based approach was taken keeping in mind the pitfalls of a rights based approach and with an intention to avoid harming legitimate and fair use of copyrighted material and is therefore, a well-considered decision which must be adhered to.

(b) Costs of a Rights Based Approach

43. The granting of these rights could act against public interest and curb freedom of speech.[82]

44. The study sanctioned by WIPO states that the Broadcast Treaty due to its limitations on retransmission of signals, reproduction, distribution, fixation and post fixation uses protects the methods of content transmission regardless of the content but doesn't adhere strictly to a signals based approach as the language of the treaty focuses on the rights of the broadcasting organization that often goes above and beyond mere signal theft. [83]

45. CIS believes that the direct result of this is that it will increase costs for the acquisition of the material underlying the signal. It will disadvantage those who would use the content underlying the broadcast signal for legal purposes such as fair use or personal reproduction because they will not have to approach not just the author/ the performer/ the copyright holder, but also the broadcasting organization unless a national law is put in place protecting the rights of the audience/consumer.[84]

46. CIS therefore believes that the shift to a rights based approach is harmful to legitimate use of copyrighted works and free speech and must be avoided in the framing of the treaty.

(c) Shift to a Rights Based Approach

47. While it could be argued that the broadcast treaty still continues the signals based approach as mandated by the 2007 WIPO General Assembly because the term "broadcast" is defined in Article 5 (b) (Alternative A) of the treaty as transmission of a signal, or transmission of a set of signals by wireless carrying a specific program for reception by the general public excluding signals over computer networks (Alternative to (b)). [85]CIS believes that there is in fact a palpable shift away from the signals based approach to an approach focused on providing broadcasters with exclusive rights in the language of the treaty.

48. The fact that "communication to the public" could be defined as "making the transmissions… audible or visible." as per Article 5 (e) (Alternative B) indicates an approach that focuses on content rather than mere signals. [86] Further, the term "embodiment" would realistically cover content as well as signal according to Article 5(e) of Alternative A and 5(f) of Alternative B. [87]

49. Even further, the treaty goes on to grant rights to broadcasting organisations that fall within the scope of rights are already granted to the copyright holder, such as the right of direct or indirect reproduction of the copyrighted work[88] and right of authorizing performances[89].

50. Furthermore, the Broadcast Treaty extends these rights with regard to term of protection[90] and with regard to works that are already in the public domain or orphan works.[91]

51. CIS therefore believes that the subtle shift in the language of the treaty indicates a shift from a signals based approach to a rights based approach, one that is not only against the mandate of the 2007 General Assembly, but also one that provides broadcasters with an extra layer of protection through these rights that were so far only granted to authors of the content under the Berne Convention and the Rome Convention.

52. As proved earlier[92] no well justified reasons have been provided so far for the necessity of these provisions or indeed this treaty, and therefore CIS believes that the WIPO consider conducting impact assessment studies and releasing a report outlining in clear terms why the provisions that currently exist in the earlier conventions have failed to protect against signal theft and why it is necessary for the Broadcast Treaty to contain this additional layer of protection granted through these rights to protect against signal piracy.

53. For all these reasons, CIS believes that the WIPO should restrict the proposed Broadcast Treaty to a signals based approach.

IV. Concluding Observations

54. The Centre for Internet and Society welcomes the opportunity to comment on the proposed Broadcast Treaty and commends the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India for its initiative in seeking inputs from Stakeholders.

55. To that end, reiterating its commitment to the values of access to knowledge, freedom of information, equality, justice, protection of general public interest and safeguarding India's national interest at the international level, the Centre for Internet and Society presents the following concluding observations:

a) That the proposed Broadcast Treaty be restricted entirely to a signal based approach, in consonance with the mandate of the 2007 WIPO General Assembly.

b) That a Preamble be inserted forthwith to clearly lay out the intention of the parties and the scope, objectives and application of this treaty.

c) That certain definitions be suitably modified, as discussed in the preceding sections of these comments.

d) That the rights of broadcasting organizations be suitably modified so as to not curtail access to information.

e) That the limitations and exceptions be made mandatory and not subject to the same tests as those understood in copyright law.

f) That technological protection measures be deleted, so as to ensure the protection of the public domain.

The Centre for Internet and Society would be willing discuss these submissions with the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, the Ministry of Human Resource Development and the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Government of India; supplement these with further submissions if necessary and offer any other assistance towards the efforts at developing a Broadcast Treaty that would be most beneficial to the protection and promotion of access to knowledge and India's national interests.



[1] See ¶ 12 of the Amended Minutes of the First Meeting of Expert Committee to discuss draft treaty for Broadcasting Organization at SCCR, WIPO held on 2.9.2014 (sic.).

[2] See the Draft Non-Paper on the WIPO Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, Available at: http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/copyright/fr/sccr_s1/sccr_s1_www_75352.doc (Last Accessed: 19/11/14).

[3] See Also WIPO Background Brief, Available at: http://www.wipo.int/pressroom/en/briefs/broadcasting.html (Last Accessed: 19/11/14).

[4] WIPO in the report of the secretariat entitled "Study on Socioeconomic Dimension of the Unauthorized Use of Signals-Part II: Unauthorized Access to Broadcast Content- Cause and Effects: A Global Overview, SCCR 20th Session, Geneva June 21-24, 2010, SCCR/20/2Rev.

[5] WIPO in the report of the secretariat entitled "Study on Socioeconomic Dimension of the Unauthorized Use of Signals-Part III: Study on the Social and Economic Effects of the Proposed Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, SCCR, 21st Session, Geneva November 8-12, 2010,SCCR/21/2.

[6] WIPO in the report of the secretariat entitled "Study on Socioeconomic Dimension of the Unauthorized Use of Signals-Part III: Study on the Social and Economic Effects of the Proposed Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, SCCR, 21st Session, Geneva November 8-12, 2010,SCCR/21/2.

[7] WIPO in the report of the secretariat entitled "Study on Socioeconomic Dimension of the Unauthorized Use of Signals-Part III: Study on the Social and Economic Effects of the Proposed Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, SCCR, 21st Session, Geneva November 8-12, 2010, SCCR/21/2; the study posits the idea that it would be easier for broadcasters to enforce their rights and catch instances of unauthorized use than it would be for individual copyright holders as a justification.

[8] Article 9 (1) (ii) (Alternative A), the Broadcast Treaty.

[9] Article11, the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, 1886 ("Berne Convention").

[10] Article 7(1) (a), International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations, 1961 ("Rome Convention").

[11] Article 6(i), the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty,1996 ("WPPT")

[12] Article 6 (i) and Article 11, the Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances, 2012 ("The Beijing Treaty").

[13] Article 9 (1) (i) (Alternative B). the Broadcast Treaty.

[14] Article 5(e) (Alternative A) and 5(f) (Alternative B),

[15] Article 7(1) (b), the Rome Convention.

[16] Article 13(b), the Rome Convention.

[17] Article 2(3) read with Article 1(v), the Brussels Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme - Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite, 1974("Brussels Convention").

[18] Article 6(ii), WPPT.

[19] Article 6(ii), the Beijing Treaty.

[20] Article 5 (e) (Alternative B), the Broadcast Treaty.

[21] Article 9(1) (iv) (Alternative B), the Broadcast Treaty.

[22] Article 11 bis, the Berne Convention.

[23] Article 13(d), the Rome Convention.

[24] Article 3, the Brussels Convention.

[25] Article 8, WIPO Copyright Treaty, 1996 ("WCT").

[26] Article 6 (i), WPPT.

[27] Article 6 (i), the Beijing Treaty.

[28] Article 11, the Beijing Treaty.

[29] Article 5 (d) (Alternative A) read with Article 9(1) (i) (Alternative A) and 9(1) (iii) (Alternative B), the Broadcast Treaty.

[30] Article 11 bis, the Berne Convention.

[31] Article 13(a), the Rome Convention

[32] Article 2(1), the Brussels Convention

[33] Article 9(1) (ii) (Alternative B), the Broadcast Treaty.

[34] Article 9, the Berne Convention.

[35] Article 12, the Berne Convention.

[36] Article 7 (1) (c), the Rome Convention.

[37] Article 13(c), the Rome Convention.

[38] Article 10, the Rome Convention.

[39] Article 7, WPPT.

[40] Article 11, WPPT.

[41] Article 11, the Beijing Treaty.

[42] Article 9 (1) (v) (Alternative B), the Broadcast Treaty

[43] Article 9 (1) (vii) (Alternative B), the Broadcast Treaty

[44] Article 6, WCT.

[45] Article 8, WPPT.

[46] Article 12, Article 14, WPPT.

[47] Article 8,the Beijing Treaty

[48] Article 5, Alternative A to Article 5 (h), the Broadcast Treaty.

[49] Article 13(2), the Broadcast Treaty.

[50] Article 12, Alternative A1, the Broadcast Treaty.

[51] Article 12, Alternative A2, the Broadcast Treaty.

[52] Article 12, Alternative B 1 and B2, the Broadcast Treaty.

[53] Article 12, Alternative B2 (2), the Broadcast Treaty.

[54] Article 12(2), WCT.

[55] Article 19(2), WPPT.

[56] Article 11, WCT.

[57] Article 18, WPPT.

[58] Article 12 (1), WCT.

[59] Article 19, WPPT.

[60] Article 15, Article 16, the Beijing Treaty.

[61] Article 11 (Alternative A), the Broadcast Treaty.

[62] Article 7 (1), the Berne Convention.

[63] Article 14(c), the Rome Convention.

[64] Article 17, WPPT.

[65] Article 14, the Beijing Treaty.

[66] Article 10, Alternative A, the Broadcast Treaty.

[67] Article 10, Alternative B, the Broadcast Treaty.

[68] Article 10, Alternative C, the Broadcast Treaty.

[69] Article 9, the Berne Convention.

[70] Article 15, the Rome Convention.

[71] Article 4, the Brussels Convention.

[72] Article 7, the Brussels Convention.

[73] Article 10, WCT.

[74] Article 16, WPPT.

[75] Article 13, the Beijing Treaty.

[76] Article 9 (1) (iii) (Alternative A) of the Broadcast Treaty

[77] See Articles 9, 11,11bis, 12 and 14 of The Berne Convention.

[78] That this is an additional layer of protection has been conceded by the WIPO in the report of the secretariat entitled "Study on Socioeconomic Dimension of the Unauthorized Use of Signals-Part III: Study on the Social and Economic Effects of the Proposed Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, SCCR, 21st Session, Geneva November 8-12, 2010,SCCR/21/2.

[79] WIPO General Assembly, 33rd (16th Extraordinary Session Geneva, September 25- October 2, 2006, WO/GA/33/10, p.38. Further see WIPO in the report of the secretariat entitled "Study on Socioeconomic Dimension of the Unauthorized Use of Signals-Part III: Study on the Social and Economic Effects of the Proposed Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, SCCR, 21st Session, Geneva November 8-12, 2010,SCCR/21/2.

[80] Id, Also See Further, Revised Consolidated Text for a Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, 12th Session, Geneva , November 17-19,2004, SCCR/12/2, p. 15.

[81] Id. p. 35, see further, WIPO General Assembly, 34th (18th Ordinary Session, Geneva, September 24- October 3 2007,WO/GA/34/16, p. 55-56; Elements for a Draft Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, 22 nd Session, Geneva June 15-24, 2011,SCCR/22/11,p.4; and Proposal on the Draft Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organization, Informal Consultation Meeting on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, Geneva, April 14-15, 2011, WIPO/CR/CONSULT/GE/11/2/2, p.5.

[82] Thomas Dreier, "Reflections on the Draft WIPO Broadcasting Treaty and Its Impact on Freedom of Expression," e-Copyright Bulletin, July-September, 2006. UNESCO

[83] "Study on Socioeconomic Dimension of the Unauthorized Use of Signals-Part III: Study on the Social and Economic Effects of the Proposed Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, SCCR, 21st Session, Geneva November 8-12, 2010,SCCR/21/2.

[84] "Study on Socioeconomic Dimension of the Unauthorized Use of Signals-Part III: Study on the Social and Economic Effects of the Proposed Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, SCCR, 21st Session, Geneva November 8-12, 2010,SCCR/21/2.

[85] Article 5(b) (Alternative A), (Alternative to (b)) of the Proposed WIPO Treaty for Protection of Broadcasting Organisations Available at: http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/copyright/en/sccr_27/sccr_27_2_rev.pdf (Hereafter, the Broadcast Treaty).

[86] Article 5(e) (Alternative B) of the Broadcast Treaty.

[87] Article 5(e) (Alternative A) and 5(f) (Alternative B) of the Broadcast Treaty.

[88] Article 9 (1) (ii) (Alternative B) of the Broadcast Treaty.

[89] Article 9 (1) (ii) (Alternative A) of the Broadcast Treaty.

[90] The term of protection set out would last for a minimum of 20-50 years from the end of the year in which the broadcast signal was broadcast under Article 11(Alternative A) of the Broadcast Treaty. This basically means that broadcasting organisations can renew their rights by simply re broadcasting the signals and thereby never allowing the content to come under public domain.

[91] Proposal on the Draft Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organization, Informal Consultation Meeting on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, Geneva, April 14-15, 2011, WIPO/CR/CONSULT/GE/11/2/2, p.5,p.8.

[92] See Part 1.1.

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