Building Knowledge and Capacity around Telecommunication Policy in India

by Prasad Krishna last modified Sep 11, 2012 02:54 PM
Ford Foundation has given a grant of USD 200,000 to the Centre for Internet & Society (CIS) over a period of two years (2011-2013) to build expertise in the area of telecommunications in India.

The project involves the following key activities:

  • Knowledge repository: Creating a repository comprising information about telecommunications related issues and policies and online course materials  designed for a multi-stakeholder audience.
  • Capacity building: organising interactive public lectures and workshops around the country to disseminate information on telecom issues.
  • Dissemination:  using traditional and new forms of media to disseminate information to academia, civil society, policy makers and the general public.


Access to telecommunications facilities and services is a key enabler of socio-economic development of countries in the Information Society. The rapid proliferation of internet and mobile phones as a medium of administration and governance, commerce, education, social networking and communication, has made the development of telecommunications infrastructure and policies a high priority for governments worldwide.

India’s telecommunications sector has been growing at a phenomenal rate of 45 per cent over the past few years and according to Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), has become the world’s third largest network[1] with a tele-density of 65 per cent, 785 million telephone connections (750 million mobile and 35 million fixed landline connections), and 10 million broadband subscribers as of December 2010.  The growth of mobile phones has surpassed fixed line networks, making the mobile the primary means of communication.

However, despite the rapid growth and expansion of telecommunications infrastructure in India, there still remains an underserved need for access and availability of services and facilities to persons living in rural and remote areas, poor persons, disabled, illiterate and elderly persons. The rural tele density remains low at 30 per cent and the number of broadband connections is also comparatively quite low. In addition to this, there is also an overall lack of public awareness about legislative and regulatory issues, market trends, international debates and research in this area, which is essential to ensuring that regulatory and market developments promote consumer choice and interests. The imperative to educate and build capacity is one which needs to be addressed both within India and globally.

Problem Statement

The rapid growth in telecommunications infrastructure and services in India over the past decade has not been complemented by correspondingly desirable levels of public awareness and participation.  The lacuna in awareness about regulation, international trends and research among stakeholders has given way to minimal representation of public and consumer groups in the policy formulation and regulation process.

There are very few courses on telecommunications which are offered online and in Indian universities and institutions. These deal primarily with technical aspects of telecommunications and do not adequately touch upon other important elements such as regulations and policies or international best practices.[2]

There is a dire need for a dedicated resource focusing on informing and training people on a wide range of issues in the telecommunications sector, as well as bringing transparency to current national developments in policy and project implementation. Such a resource is important to ensure that public interest is protected and critical national resources are deployed in an efficient, just and transparent manner. Similar initiatives such as the Link Centre offer limited support to persons living in India since they do not focus on India.

Project Description

CIS proposes to build awareness and capacity on telecom issues for a multi-stakeholder audience comprising researchers and academicians, policy makers and regulators, consumer and civil society organisations, education and library institutions and lay persons through the creation of a dedicated web based resource focusing on knowledge dissemination. This resource will comprise a repository containing articles and sample course modules on telecommunications issues and policies It will be built on an open platform and all content will be openly licensed under a creative commons license which will be made available free of charge to the users. The content will be on par with international standards and will undergo constant review and updates to keep abreast of current trends and debates. The Moodle learning management system will be used to manage the content.

Project Goals and Activities

The goals and activities of this project are given below:

Knowledge Repository

Goal:  To create an on line repository of telecommunications related information and learning materials targeted at a multi stakeholder audience.

  1. Create and maintain open educational resources[3] on telecommunications that facilitates self directed and collaborative learning in a Multi user environment.
  2. Provide information in a variety of audio, video, text and alternate accessible formats on telecommunications related topics,
  3. Provide a single source for all information and documentation related to policy environment for telecommunications in India

Capacity Building

Goal: To raise levels of expertise and provide a set of comprehensive skills to interested students, bureaucrats, media personnel and members of civil society, so that they can understand, engage with and influence the development of telecommunications in India.


  1. Organise 6 workshops over two years in different locations to test the open education resources and solicit feedback. These will be conducted by the CIS project team and some external resource persons.
  2. Organise 10 public talks by subject experts at the CIS office in Bangalore and different venues around India, which will be podcast live from the CIS web site. These may be more topical and relevant to current developments.



  1. To ensure the mainstreaming and sustainability of the learning materials created by CIS by partnering with academia;
  2. To make the telecom policy process in India more scrutable to civil society and politicians; and
  3. To create awareness amongst the Indian Diaspora and Internet users in India.


  1. To work with academia to develop teaching modules from the content available in the repository. These modules could be in the form of text or video lectures, podcasts, etc.
  2. To disseminate content in the form of easy to read FAQs, posters, Primers, cheat sheets, DVDs, audio visual materials and other accessible formats to civil society organisations and policy makers.
  3. To execute a comprehensive social media strategy for disseminating information and increasing public engagement. These could include:
  • Using social networking platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Orkut, My Space etc to infiltrate existing on line communities using carefully crafted tit bits from the repository to increase traffic.
  • Using You Tube, Blip TV etc for video uploads, web casts and podcasts.
  • Engaging with existing on line communities by contributing to ongoing and new discussions on mailing lists and blogs.
  • Building on a regular basis a data base of opinion and thought leaders on line and off line using a constituent relationship management software and using mass personalised e mail to encourage them to popularise our content repository through their communication channels.

    Overall project activities:
  • Identify other senior experts and consultants for the project
  • Set up server infrastructure and the Moodle Learning Management System and training the project team to use it.
  • Organise six workshops and 10 public talks with live podcasts over two years to disseminate information on these topics.

Plan and Measurable Progress Indicators

For the purpose of measuring progress, the project can be divided into four phases of six months duration. The total number of learning materials to be created is 230 over two years. These are divided into 150 text lessons (Primers, FAQs, cheat sheets and posters) and 72 videos. The target for each phase will be to create approx 37 texts and 18 videos. Based on that, the project deliverables are as follows:

Phase I


  1. Hiring the core team, consultants and technology person to set up and manage the system.
  2. Setting up the Moodle Learning Management System and training the team in using it. Mapping out topics for content generation and allocating work.


  1. Complete the hiring of all project personnel.
  2. Complete the Moodle Learning Management system set up and training.
  3. Completion of 37 text lessons and 18 videos.

4.    Organised one workshop and two public lectures to get feedback on the completed modules.
5.    Awareness raising and inviting comments on completed modules through social media and mailing lists.

Phase II


  1. All relevant policies, legislations, rules and important case law will be mirrored on the web site
  2. Another 38 text lessons and 18 videos will be added to the repository.
  3. The next 2 Workshops and 3 public lectures will be conducted to get feedback on the learning materials and build awareness.
  4. Awareness building, call for comments and community engagement activities will continue through social media, mailing lists and the CIS news letter


  1. Half of the course content (75 text lessons and 36 videos) created and available on site.
  2. Policy and regulatory information available on site.
  3. Engagement with communities on social networking platforms, mailing lists and blogs continues.
  4. A total of 3 Workshops and 5 public lectures conducted.
  5. Engagement with academia for creating course content begins.

Phase III


  1. Content generation, capacity building and dissemination activities continue.


  1. 75 per cent of the content (112 text lessons and 54 videos) will be up on the web site.
  2. 4 workshops and 8 public lectures conducted.
  3. Social media outreach continues with regular traffic on the web site.
  4. Engagement with academia to create course modules continues.

Phase IV


  1. All the course modules will be completed and events conducted. A lot of effort will be taken for Dissemination and outreach.


  1. All the content (150 text lessons and 72 videos) will be up on the web site.
  2. All relevant policies, rules and legislations will be on line.
  3. Data bases of course participants, media and other persons who were part of the course outreach will be prepared.
  4. All six workshops and ten public lectures conducted.

CIS interest in the project:

CIS is committed to ensuring public access and participation in the information society through the internet. We work towards creating a policy environment which promotes consumer interests by facilitating unhindered access to web sites, digital content and technologies and fosters creation of networks for sharing knowledge and culture.

Since our engagement with telecommunications issues has been at a very nascent level, we would like to build expertise in this area through this project.


  • Regularly provide feedback and comments to proposals and notifications which are issued by the Department of Telecommunications and TRAI,[4] especially with respect to spectrum allocation.
  • We recently sent some notes to the Government of India in December 2010/January 2011: facts, assessments and suggestions and in February, we expect to meet with a Member, Planning Commission (Arun Maira) to advocate coordinated scenario.
  • We have initiated the Universal Service Obligation Fund of India to fund several projects for persons with disabilities. To that end, we created a framework document which is available on the USOF website.[5] these projects may come to approximately 1 million dollars.
  • Providing recommendations on accessibility in telecommunications for persons with disabilities and elderly persons to be included in the New Telecom Policy which is to come out in March 2011.

The International Telecommunications Union

  • We were contracted by the ITU to prepare a paper on Mobile best practices for Persons with Disabilities in December 2010. The report is complete and we are awaiting feedback from the ITU for finalisation
  • Edited and published a print version of the handbook on e-accessibility for persons with disabilities, which was sent to over 200 regulators and Ministries of ICT around the world.
  • Co-organised an event on Enabling Access to Education for Persons with Disabilities (Edict 2010) with ITU and other UN agencies, the Department of IT and civil society organisations in October 2010.
  • Presently working on a global paper with the co-operation of ITU and G3ict which will look at how the Universal Service Funds of countries are being utilised to fund projects to promote access for the disabled.

Media Intervention

Columns by Shyam Ponappa

  1. Spectrum Auctions: 'Jhatka' or 'Halal'?, Business Standard, February 3, 2011
  2. The Policy Langurs, Business Standard, January 6, 2011
  3. Take 'Model T' for Telecom, Business Standard, December 2, 2010
  4. Ideology & ICT Policies, Business Standard, November 6, 2010
  5. Broad-basing Broadband, Business Standard, October 7, 2010
  6. What a Highway Can Do, Business Standard, September 2, 2010
  7. 'Containing Inflation' - A Myth, Business Standard, August 7, 2010
  8. Catching up on Broadband, Business Standard, July 1, 2010
  9. India's Sorry Spectrum Story, Business Standard, June 3, 2010
  10. China Club instead of Bombay Club?, Business Standard, May 13, 2010
  11. The Right Ring Tone, Business Standard, April 1, 2010
  12. Understanding Spectrum, Business Standard, March 4, 2010
  13. Alternative Scenarios, Business Standard, February 4, 2010
  14. Plan and Execute for Results, Business Standard, January 10, 210
  15. Developments in Spectrum Sharing, Business Standard, December 3, 2009
  16. Managing Spectrum, Business Standard, November 5, 2009

Column by Nishant Shah

  1. 3G Life, Indian Express, November 14, 2010

Association for Progressive Communication (APC)

  1. APC Open Spectrum for Development India Case Study by Shyam Ponappa, November 2010. The report covers chapters on Spectrum Policy Regulatory Environment, the Spectrum Management Process, Spectrum Management – The Future, Access to Unlicensed/License-Exempt Spectrum, Exploiting Wireless, National Broadband Strategy, International Coordination, etc.
  2. APC Open Spectrum for Development India Case Study by Shyam Ponappa, November 2010.
  3. Article on spectrum policy based on APC’s Open Spectrum Project (by APC in monthly news magazine: ‘India's untapped potential: Are a billion people losing out because of spectrum?’

Open Society Institute

  1. A report on spectrum in India is to be prepared by Robert Horvitz as part of a project of Open Spectrum Foundation in collaboration with the Open Society Institute – Information Programme.
  2. Presently preparing a report on digital media and technology in India, which is part of a larger global survey on Mapping Digital Media in collaboration with Jamia Milla Islamia - Centre Culture and Media Governance?

Academic Interventions

  1. Organised a lecture tour for telecom expert Sagie Chetti in collaboration with the Link Centre in 2009 to share information in various universities and institutions around the country on the landscape of the telecommunications sector in South Africa. Presentations were held at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Chennai and IIT, Mumbai, the International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT), Bangalore, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU),  National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies (NISTADS) and Jamia Millia Islamia University – all based in Delhi. The visit concluded with meetings with officials from the Telecoms Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI).

List of Topics for the Knowledge Repository

Module 1: Introduction to Telecommunications
Forms of Telecommunication

  • Data
  • Telephony
    Unit 1: Fixed line telephone (Text) - 1
    Unit 2: Wireless Communication: Mobiles (Text + Video)
    Unit 3:  Wireless Communication: PDAs and Stand alone devices (Text ) - 1
    Unit 1: Different forms of Video Communication  (Text + Video)
  • Telephony networks
    Unit 1: Fixed Networks and their standards (Text) – 1 + Unit 2: Mobile (Text) – 1 + 1 FAQ
    Unit 3: Cable TV Networks/ Converged Networks (Text) – 1  + 1

    Total = 9 E + 4 V = 13

Module 2: Telecommunications Infrastructure and Technologies

  • Passive Infrastructure
  • Active Infrastructure
    Unit 1: Access – 1  +1 FAQ
    Unit 2: Core - 1
    Unit 3: Transport – 1 + 1
    Unit 4: Network Management – 1 + 1
  • Transmission Technology (Text)
    Unit 1: Optical Fibre - 1
    Unit 2: Microwaves - 1
    Unit 3: Satellites - 1
  • Technology
    Unit 1: Fundamental Concepts and changes - 1
    Unit 2: Digitalization (Text ) – 1 + 1
    Unit 3: Compression (Text) – 1 + 1
    Unit 4:Multiplexing and Modulation (Text) – 1 + 1
    Unit 4:Packetization (Text) - 1
  • Customer Premises Devices
    Unit 1: Different kinds of handsets available in India (Text) - 1
    Unit 2: Various features in the handsets (Text) – 1 + 1FAQ + 1
    Unit 3: Technology (Text) – 1 + 1
    Unit 4: Standards (Text) - 1
    Unit 5: Future Technology (Text) - 1
  • Technology for Computers Communication:Wifi,WiMax, etc
    Unit 1: Internet (Protocols, Security, VoIP etc) - 1
    Unit 1: Internet Protocols(Text) - 1
    Unit 2: Design Principles(Text) - 1
    Unit 3: QoS and Security(Text+ Audio)
    Unit 4: Mobility and Nomdicity(Text) - 1
    Unit 5: IPv6 (Text) - 1
    Unit 6: Standards (Text) - 1
  • Technology for Mobiles: GSM, CDMA, GPRS etc
    Unit 1: Evolution  - 1 + 1Overview
    Unit1: First Generation (Text)- 1
    Unit 2: Second Generation (Text) - 1
    Unit 3: 2.5 G – GPRS and EDGE (Text) - 1
    Unit 4: Third Generation (Text) – 1 + 1FAQ
    Unit 5: Standards (Text) - 1
  • Services
    Unit1: Voice Service (Text) – 1 + 1Overview
    Unit 2: Location based service (Text) - 1
    Unit 3: Multimedia Service (Text) - 1
    Unit 4: Corporate Service (Text) - 1
    Unit 5: Mobile Internet (Text + Video) – 1+1
    Unit 6: Mobi TV (Text + video) – 1+1
    Unit 7: Service Providers (Text) – 1 + 1FAQ
    Unit 8: Customer care services (Text) - 1
  • Future Technology(4G, LTE)
    Unit 1: Software Defined Radio (Text) – 1+1
    Unit 2: Cognitive Radio (Text) – 1 + 1
    Unit 3: 4G and LTE (Text) – 1+1
  • Convergence
    Unit 1: Telecom-Mobile Broadcast Convergence (Text) – 1+1
    Unit 2: Fixed-Mobile Convergence (Text) – 1+1
    Unit 3: Converged services – VOIP and IPTV(Text+ Video) – 1+1
  • NGN [Next Generation Networks]
    Unit 1: Next Generation Core Networks (NGCN) (Text) – 1+1
    Unit 2: Next Generation Access Networks (NGAN) Fixed  (Text) – 1+1
    Unit 3: Next Generation Access Networks (NGAN) Wireless (Text) – 1+1

    Total = 30 E+ 6FAQs + 4PR+ 6 CS + 22 V + 4 PO = 72
    46 T + 22V + 4PO

Module 3: Government of India Regulatory Framework for Telecom

  • Overview of the Indian regulatory environment and relevant legislations
    Unit 1: The National Telecom Policies of 1994 and 1999 (includes amendments and sequels) (Text) – 1+1
    Unit 2: Cable TV Act (Text) – 1+1
    Unit 3: Indian Telegraph Act 1885 (Text) – 1+1
    Unit 4: Indian Telegraph Act Amendment Act of 2003(Text) – 1+1
    Unit 5: The Indian Wireless Act 1993(Text) – 1+1
    Unit 6: TRAI Act of 1995, TRAI Act of 1997, TRAI Amendment Act of 2000(Text) – 1+1
    Unit 7: Other relevant legislations and policies - The Indian Copyright Act 1957, privacy and data security, National Electronic Accessibility Policy,  The Information Technology Act 2000, Right to Information Act 2005, Consumer Protection Act 1986, Policy on Open standards and Biometric standards, Technical standards for interoperability of E-governance  infrastructure, the draft Electronic Service Delivery Bill etc. (Text) – 1+2FAQs
  • Government Bodies responsible for Telecommunications in India
    DOT- its powers and responsibilities
    Unit 1: Government Policy and Guidelines (Text) - 1
    Unit 2:  Regulations (Text) - 1
  • TRAI
    Unit 1: Tariffs (Text) – 1 FAQ
    Unit 2: Revenue Sharing(Text, FAQs) – 1 + 1FAQ
    Unit 3: Issuance of Licenses (all kinds of licenses including VSAT) (Text) - 1
    Criterion to be fulfilled(Text) – 1FAQ + 1
    Terms and conditions for every license type. (Text) - 1
    Unit 4: Consultation Papers: Impact of consultation papers on policies, regulations and recommendations(Text) – 1FAQ + 1
    Unit 5 Mobile Number Portability(Text, FAQs) - 1
    Unit 6 NDNC (Text, Faqs) - 2
    Unit 7 Policy recommendations (Text) – 1+1
    Important Judgements (Text) - 2
    Centre for Excellence in Telecom Technology and Management (includes all the centres under this) (CETTM) (Text) - 1
  • Other Agencies
    Unit 1: Various Projects (Concentrate on SWAN) (Text) - 1
    Unit 2: Role of TCIL in India (Text, FAQs) - 1
    BSNL and MTNL (phone, internet and broadband, mobile phones etc)(Text) – 1+1
  • Services
    Unit 1: Basic Telecom Services - 1
    Unit 2 Captive user services (Text) – 1
    Unit 3: Commercial User Services (Text) – 1
  • Spectrum Management 
    Unit 1: Auctioning and allocating process for all kinds of spectrum- 1FAQ+1
    Unit 2:  The initial process of auctioning (Text) – 1
    Unit 3: How are the bidders selected (Text, faqs) - 1
    Unit 4: Criterion for allocation (Text) - 1
    Unit 5: Time taken to allocate (Text) - 1
    Unit 6: Selection of band (Text) - 1
    Unit 7: Interference issues (Text) - 1
    Unit 8: Spectrum Refarming (Text – 1
    Unit 9: Spectrum Reallocation (Text,faqs) – 1FAQ + 1
  • National Frequency Allocation Plan (Text) - 1
  • Numbering(Text)
    Objectives of numbering - 1
    Regulatory framework for numbering - 1
  • Interconnection issues (Text) - 1
  • Digital Dividend (Text) – 1+1FAQ

    Total = 26 E +13 V +8 FAQ +3 CS+ 3 PR
    40 Text+ 13 Videos= 53

Module 4: Telecommunication and the Market

  • Unit 1: Licensing framework for Telecom including a historical overview – 1
  • Unit 1:  Investment and Ownership in Telecoms – 1+1
    6.1.1 Market Structure levels (Text)
    Kinds of Competitions (Text) - 1
  • Unit 1:  Revenue Generation (Text) - 1
  • Unit 1:  Taxes and other charges (Text) – 1
  • Unit 1: SWOT Analysis of current regime – 1+1

6 Text+ 2 Videos + 1 Poster

Module 5: Universal Access and Accessibility

  • Background of Universal Service regulation - 1
  • Universal Service Obligation Fund – 1FAQ + 1
  • Need for rural and remote access  - 1+1
  • Need for accessibility(Text) - 1
    Large demographic group - persons with disabilities, elderly persons and illiterate persons
    Legal imperative: equality and non discrimination -1
    Good business opportunity -1 +1
  • Accessibility key concepts and requirements(Text)
    Universal design – 1+1Overview
    Web accessibility – 1+1
    Accessibility in services – 1+1
  • Organizations focusing on providing accessibility to rural areas
    TeNet -1+1

Total = 9E+7V+1 FAQ+1 CS+1 PO= 19
11 Text+ 1 Poster + 7 videos

Module 6:  The International Telecommunications Union and other International Bodies

  • ITU
    ITU sectors- ITU-R, ITU-T, ITU-D and ITU Telecom. – 2+1
    Regulation - 1
    Radio spectrum sharing – 1FAQ+1
    Standards setting - 1
  • WSIS
  • Other international agencies
    South Asia Association of Regional Co-operation(SAARC) - 2+1
    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP)
    Commonwealth Telecom Organisation (CTO)
    International Telecommunication Satellite Organisation (UTSO)
    International Mobile Satellite Organisation (IMSO)
    Asia-Pacific Satellite Communication Council (APSCC)
  • International instruments and bi-lateral  and multi-lateral trade agreements - 2
    Treaty on Broadcasting and the proposed instruments on limitations and exceptions which are being negotiated at the World Intellectual Property Organisation. (Text)
  • International best practices for policy (Text) –2

8 E+ 3V+1 FAQ+ 1 CS + 2 PR= 15
12 Text + 3 Videos

Module 7: Broadcasting

  • Radio
    Types of radio broadcasting in India – 1+ 2
    Unit 1 AIR (Text)
    Unit 2 Private Fms which include both commercial radio, campus radio and community radios (Text) – 1+3
  • Television
    Unit 1: Cable TV (Text) – 1+1
    Unit 2:  IP TV (Text,Faqs) – 1+1
    Unit 3: Mobile TV(Text, Faqs) – 1+1
    Unit 4: DTH(Text, Faqs) – 1+1
    Unit 5: Terrestrial TV(Text) – 1+1
    Unit 6: Standards(Text) - 1
  • Associations regulating broadcasting in India(Text) – 1

Total= 7 E+ 8V+1 FAQ+1CS=17

9 text+ 8 Video

Module 8: Emerging Topics

  • Broadband Wireless Access
    Unit 1: Standards(Text) – 1+1
    Unit 2: Technology(Text) – 1+1
  • IPTV (Text, FAQs) –1FAQ+1
  • Mobile TV (Text, FAQs) – 1FAQ+1
  • Fibre to the home (FTTH) – 1+1
  • Broadband over power-lines – 1+1
  • Mesh networking – 1+1
  • FEMTO-Cell and Cable TV – 2+1
  • Relevant regulations and legal issues – 2+1

Total= 7E+9V+2 FAQ+2CS+2 PO=    22

11 Text +2 Posters +9 Videos

Module 9: Way Forward

  • Policy Reform – 1+1
  • Licensing Reform – 1+1FAQ
  • Regulation Reform – 1+1
  • Market Place Reform – 1+1

6 Text + 4 Videos

Grand total =  150 Text + 8 Posters + 72 Videos = 230 Lessons

Work Plan for 3 people working on the project

No. of videos in 6 months 18 6 per person
No. of articles in 6 months 26-27 9 per person
No. of videos in 1 year
36 12 per person
No. of articles in 1 year
52-54 18 per person
No. of videos in 2 years
72 24 per person
No. of articles in 2 years
35 per person

List of Potential Partners

  1. Centre for Excellence in Telecom Technology and Management (CETTM), Mumbai
  2. Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DoT), Bangalore and Kolkatta
  3. ISRO, Bangalore
  4. National Knowledge Network, New Delhi ( Programme implementation unit)
  5. Telecommunication Engineering Centre, New Delhi
  6. IITCOE at IIM Ahmedabad
  7. AIIScCET at IISc Bangalore
  8. BITCOE at IIT Kanpur
  9. RITCOE at IIT Madras, Chennai
  10. VEICET at IIT Kharagpur
  11. AICET at IIT Delhi
  12. TICET at IIT Bombay, Mumbai
  13. Centre for Culture, Media and Governance, New Delhi
  14. IEEE Bangalore Section

Key contact details

  1. Sunil Abraham (Executive Director)
    Centre for Internet and Society
    194, 2nd C Cross, Domlur 2nd stage, Bengaluru: 560071
    Tel: 080 25350955
    Mob: + 91-9611100817
    Email: [email protected]
  2. Nirmita Narasimhan (Programme Manager)
    Centre for Internet and Society
    194, 2nd C Cross, Domlur 2nd stage, Bengaluru: 560071
    Tel: 080 25350955
    Mob: + 91-9845868078
    Email: [email protected]
  3. Narasimha Rao (Administrative Officer)
    Centre for Internet and Society
    194, 2nd C Cross, Domlur 2nd stage, Bengaluru: 560071
    Tel: 080 25350955
    Mob: + 91-9886193846


[2].Examples of such courses are:Telecom datacom and networking- 3 days course Telefocal Asia
[3].These open educational resources should be freely shared through open licences which facilitate use, revision, translation, improvement and sharing by anyone. Resources should be published in formats that facilitate both use and editing, and that accommodate a diversity of technical platforms. Whenever possible, they should also be available in formats that are accessible to people with disabilities and people who do not yet have access to the Internet.
4].Telecom Regulatory Authority of India